Comparative Religion


There are nearly 1.3 Billion Muslims worldwide; about one fifth of the total world population...


From the practically universal perspective of the nearly 1.6 billion Muslim people, the Qur’an is regarded as “the word of Allah; God” 1. The predominant views among Western writers are that the Qur’an is not a divinely revealed scripture. Some hold that view because they do not accept the notion of divine revelation and some do not believe in the existence of God altogether. Some writers who believe in God, Prophets and divinely revealed scriptures hold that the Qur’an does not fall in this category of sacred books.

Was Jesus a Muslim?

By Dr. Ahmed Afzaal
I f asked this question, Muslims
would immediately and emphatically
respond in the affirmative. Of course
he was a Muslim, they would say, since
he was a noble prophet and a messenger
of Allah (SWT). Indeed, they
would see this question as a typical “nobrainer,”
for even a Muslim child could
answer it correctly without too much
thinking. But what if this question
was aimed not at Muslims but at Christians?
How would contemporary
American Christians respond to the

Non-Muslim and Muslim Scholars's Reviews

Scripture and God in the Judeo Christian and Islamic Traditions: A Study of Anthropomorphism is a masterful, thought-provoking, and insightful study by Zulfiqar Ali Shah of anthropomorphism in the conceptions of God in the Bible and the Quran that will be welcomed by scholars and students and all who are interested in the Abrahamic traditions.

Concept of God in Judaic, Christian and Islamic Traditions

he book is an extensive exposition of the issues of anthropomorphism and corporealism (the description of God in physical human terms, categories or forms inappropriate to His Majesty) in the three Abrahamic Faiths, as viewed through the texts of the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament and the Qur’an. It is in addition, a detailed examination of later developments in theological thought, scriptural interpretation, and exegetical criticism with regards to anthropomorphism, and how these have significantly influenced perceptions of God by followers of all three Traditions.

Throughout history Christianity and Judaism have tried to make sense of God, accepting anthropomorphic images (whether verbal or physical) of the Divine, yet disagreeing as to what these mean, whilst at the same time attempting to save the transcendent God from notions of corporeality and anthropomorphism. The book addresses the worldview of both faiths, and fundamentally how each has chosen to framework its own understanding of, and encounter with, God – how each views God’s personality and nature – and how much of this has been the result of scripture and how much supplemental additions of later theological debate, absorption of Hellenistic philosophy, and church decrees of later centuries.

Muslims too have historically debated the few mildly anthropomorphic expressions contained in the Qur’an, albeit strictly confining discourse to issues of metaphorical versus literal interpretation, whilst simultaneously taking an unequivocal anti-anthropomorphic, anti-corporeal stance to safeguard Islam’s concept of a unique, transcendent and monotheistic God...

Why I wrote a Book about God?

This book is the culmination of a long and complex journey, full of the twists and turns that make up the narrative of my life.

Concept of God in Judaic, Christian and Islamic Traditions: Preface by Dr. Robert F. Shedinger

In response to the creation story found in the Bible someone once quipped, “God created humans in his image and then humans turned around and returned the favor.” That there is great truth in this aphorism is well demonstrated by Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Shah’s magisterial study of the tendencies toward anthropomorphism and transcendence in the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic theological traditions.

Concept of God in Judaic, Christian and Islamic Traditions: Forward by Prof. Paul Badham

I am very glad to write a forward to this quite brilliant study of Anthropomorphism and Transcendence in the Bible and Qu’ran. For seven years I was privileged to work closely with Zulfiqar Ali Shah as supervisor of the doctoral thesis on which this book is based. Both I, and colleagues who shared with me in the task of supervision were deeply impressed by the thoroughness of Dr. Shah’s research and the range of scholarship covered. All three examiners spoke in the highest terms of his thesis and I am delighted that it will now be available to other scholars.

The book contains a thorough overview of Jewish understandings of the authority and significance of the Torah and of the later writings which make up the Hebrew Bible. It covers both Orthodox and Reformed perspectives and ranges across the centuries.

Christian understandings of the New Testament are treated with equal care and the book contains a careful study of the development of Christian doctrine leading up to the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon as well as exploring modern attempts to reinterpret the classical doctrinal statements.

Founding Fathers of America's Indebtedness to Islamic Thought

Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America...


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