PDF When Caesar was assassinated, his heir, Augustus, adopted both claims as evidence of his inherent fitness for office, and divine approval of his rule. Venus became a popular subject of painting and sculpture during the Renaissance period in Europe. In the later classical tradition of the West, Venus became one of the most widely referenced deities of Greco-Roman mythology as the embodiment of love and sexuality. It was Venus's cult title at Hadrian's temple to Venus Felix et Roma Aeterna on the Via Sacra. Pompey, in fact, had himself built a temple to Venus Victrix earlier , as part of his theater complex (where Caesar would fall at the foot of Pompey's statue). Rome; Tuscany. 457 – 8, citing Pliny the Elder. Diese Form verbreitete sich rasch und hatte noch auf die christliche Architektur Einfluss. Venus Felix ("Lucky Venus"), probably a traditional epithet, later adopted by the dictator Sulla. Italy. The theatre was seen to be a shrine to Venus (source- Tertullian, Pagan Entertainment ) suggested by the temple of Venus Victrix added to its structure. This epithet is also used for a specific sculpture at the Vatican Museums.  Pompeii's protective goddess was Venus Physica Pompeiana, who had a distinctive, local form as a goddess of the sea, and trade. This sightline was permanently disprupted in 32 BC when Augustus had a stone scaena built. In another, king Ancus Marcius' wife and other Roman women lost their hair during an epidemic; in hope of its restoration, unafflicted women sacrificed their own hair to Venus. Oath of Lucretia (acoustic) 3. The "Dart Aphrodite": a new replica of the "Arles Aphrodite Type", the cult image of Venus Victrix in Pompey's theatre at Rome, and venusian ideology and politics in the late republic-early prinicipate. When Sulla captured Pompeii from the Samnites, he resettled it with his veterans and renamed it for his own family and divine protector Venus, as Colonia Veneria Cornelia (for Sulla's claims of Venus' favour, see Venus Felix above). She was also a "Women's goddess". Die Sitzreihen führten einer grossen Treppe gleich zum Altar hoch. Virgil, in compliment to his patron Augustus and the gens Julia, embellished an existing connection between Venus, whom Julius Caesar had adopted as his protectress, and Aeneas. Home; Europe. Ancient Roman goddess of love, sex and fertility, Goddess of love, beauty, desire, fertility and prosperity. Venus Caelestis is the earliest known Roman recipient of a taurobolium (a form of bull sacrifice), performed at her shrine in Pozzuoli on 5 October 134. Servius speculates this as reference to a "Fountain of Acidalia" (fons acidalia) where the Graces (Venus' daughters) were said to bathe; but he also connects it to the Greek word for "arrow", whence "love's arrows" and love's "cares and pangs". Autores: John Pollini; Localización: Latomus: revue d'études latines, ISSN 0023-8856, Vol. A temple of Venus Victrix (Venus 'the Conqueror') was incorporated into Pompey's theatre. Here the façade as well as the structure sustaining the temple of Venus. "Bona Dea" means "The Good Goddess". The temple, cult and goddess probably retained much of the original's character and rites. Plutarch's original Greek translates this adopted surname, Felix, as Epaphroditus (Aphrodite's beloved); see Plutarch, Sulla 19.9. The Dutch band Shocking Blue had a number one hit on the Billboard Top Ten in 1970 with the song titled "Venus", which was also a hit when covered by Bananarama in 1986. Vergil's Aeneas is guided to Latium by Venus in her heavenly form, the morning star, shining brightly before him in the daylight sky; much later, she lifts Caesar's soul to heaven. Aphrodite Urania.). At this festival, men and women alike drank the new vintage of ordinary, non-sacral wine in honour of Venus, whose powers had provided humankind with this gift. ", The widely spaced, open style preferred by Vitruvius is, The origin is unknown, but it might derive from, Carter, Jesse Benedict, "The Cognomina of the Goddess 'Fortuna,'", Olivier de Cazanove, "Jupiter, Liber et le vin latin", Revue de l'histoire des religions, 1988, Vol. Rivalling Pompey and his temple of Venus Victrix, Caesar vowed to build his own temple to Venus in 48 BC at the battle of Pharsalus where the two men led their armies into civil war. The highest point of the structure was the Temple to Venus Victrix, Pompey's personal deity (compared to Julius Caesar's worship of Venus Genetrix as his personal deity). Menu. Pompey and Caesar each promised dedications to the temple of Venus Victrix if they were successful (Plutarch Pompey 68.2, Appian 2.10.6). In one context, she is a goddess of prostitutes; in another, she turns the hearts of men and women from sexual vice to virtue.. Many female nudes from this period of sculpture whose subjects are unknown are in modern art history conventionally called 'Venus'es, even if they originally may have portrayed a mortal woman rather than operated as a cult statue of the goddess. Today, many of these shops still exist and fragments of the old theatre and porticus can be seen embedded in the ancient walls of many of the buildings. 67 – 69: "At the battle of Pharsalus, Caesar also vowed a temple, in best republican fashion, to Venus Victrix, almost as if he were summoning Pompey’s protectress to his side in the manner of an, Immediately after these remarks, Vitruvius prescribes the best positioning for temples to Venus' two divine consorts, Vulcan and Mars. , Myrtle was thought a particularly potent aphrodisiac. Venus Libertina ("Venus the Freedwoman"), probably arising through the semantic similarity and cultural inks between libertina (as "a free woman") and lubentina (possibly meaning "pleasurable" or "passionate"). , In 217 BC, in the early stages of the Second Punic War with Carthage, Rome suffered a disastrous defeat at the battle of Lake Trasimene. Its dedication date connects Venus Obsequens to the Vinalia rustica festival. Orlin, Eric M., "Foreign Cults in Republican Rome: Rethinking the Pomerial Rule". Caesar originally had vowed a temple to Venus Victrix, but Pompey's own temple to the goddess, dedicated in 55 BC (Pliny, VIII.20; Aulus Gellius, X.1.7), obliged him to consecrate it to Venus Genetrix instead. King (eds.). Like other major Roman deities, Venus was given a number of epithets that referred to her different cult aspects, roles, and her functional similarities to other deities. The Theatre of Pompey was one of the most massive constructions of the Campus Martius. Pauline Bonaparte as Venus Victrix (or Venus Victorious) is a semi-nude life-size neo-Classical portrait sculpture by the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova. The first and most popular of these gardens was located in the quadriporticus that Pompey built to adjoin the theatre that also bore his name. Pompey, impressed or inspired by what he saw during his years of travel and campaigning for Rome, returned with a desire to build a monument to himself larger than any other before. In the field of prehistoric art, since the discovery in 1908 of the so-called "Venus of Willendorf" small Neolithic sculptures of rounded female forms have been conventionally referred to as Venus figurines. Varro rationalises the connections as, "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome", v. 1, p. 167. The south foundations of the Temple of Venus Victrix photographed by Antonio Colini (c.1933) During the three decades after Baltard, finds from the Theater of Pompey were, with one exception, largely unrecorded, but, in 1865, there was a second large-scale excavation. Her male counterparts in the Roman pantheon, Vulcan and Mars, are active and fiery. 245–265, Vegetable-growers may have been involved in the dedications as a corporate guild: see Eden, P.T., "Venus and the Cabbage", For associations of kind between Roman deities and their sacrificial victims, see. "Roman Venus: public worship and private rites." . Outside of this context, ordinary wine (that is, Venus' wine) tinctured with myrtle oil was thought particularly suitable for women. Another reference to Venus is from Billy Idol's album "Cyberpunk" , in track # 16 titled "Venus". , The Capitoline cult to Venus seems to have been reserved to higher status Romans. Title: Pauline Bonaparte as Venus Victrix Artist: Antonio Canova Medium: White Marble (92 × 201 cm) Date: 1805-1808 Location: Gallery Borghese, Rome Category: Women as Symbols of Sex and Fertility This sculpture of Pauline Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon, was commissioned by her husband Camillo Borghese and completed after the couples marriage. 1650 - 1700, by Peter Paul Rubens, Mars Being Disarmed by Venus (1822–25) by Jacques-Louis David, Birth of Venus (1863) by Alexandre Cabanel, Tannhäuser in the Venusberg (1901) by John Collier, Iris presenting the wounded Venus to Mars by Sir George Hayter, 1820 - Ante Library, Chatsworth House. • Theatre of Pompey • Temple  The ambivalence of her persuasive functions has been perceived in the relationship of the root *wenos- with its Latin derivative venenum ('poison'; from *wenes-no 'love drink' or 'addicting'), in the sense of "a charm, magic philtre". Pompey the Great's theatre, dedicated in 55 BC on the Campus Martius, included a large temple to Venus Victrix; his rival Julius Caesar vowed and built a temple to Venus in his new-built forum. Her Sicillian form probably combined elements of Aphrodite and a more warlike Carthaginian-Phoenician, Venus' links with Troy can be traced to the epic, mythic history of the. Venus Erycina("Venus from Eryx"), also calle… , Venus was offered official (state-sponsored) cult in certain festivals of the Roman calendar.  Before its adoption into Venus' cults, myrtle was used in the purification rites of Cloacina, the Etruscan-Roman goddess of Rome's main sewer; later, Cloacina's association with Venus' sacred plant made her Venus Cloacina. 4, 1996, págs. Under these special circumstances, they could get virtuously, religiously drunk on strong wine, safe from Venus' temptations. for a specific festival) and then taken down. The general and dictator Sulla adopted Felix ("Lucky") as a surname, acknowledging his debt to heaven-sent good fortune and his particular debt to Venus Felix, for his extraordinarily fortunate political and military career. It was sited somewhere near the Aventine Hill and Circus Maximus, and played a central role in the Vinalia Rustica. Eden, P.T., "Venus and the Cabbage" Hermes, 91, (1963) p. 456. This was to guide the visitor's sight directly along the inner garden area to the main doorway (regia) to the stage of the theatre and up to the temple of Venus Victrix. Tannhäuser breaks his knightly vows by spending a year there with Venus, under her enchantment. A sacrifice was annually dedicated to her on the latter date. Tsukuyomi (acoustic) 2. Venus Victrix ("Venus the Victorious"), a Romanised aspect of the armed Aphrodite that Greeks had inherited from the East, where the goddess Ishtar "remained a goddess of war, and Venus could bring victory to a Sulla or a Caesar." 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